The ability to reproducibly prepare hapten-carrier conjugates with consistent lot-to-lot protein yields and hapten densities is a key component in the development of hapten conjugate vaccines. This requires the development of suitable coupling chemistries to quantify hapten density without causing protein precipitation. Creative Biolabs is a world leader in vaccine services and provides conjugation method design for hapten conjugate vaccines.

Many naturally occurring proteins, peptides, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, and lipids as well as synthetic peptides are successful immunogens. Whereas, small chemical substances (haptens) are usually not good immunogens. However, they can become immunogenic when attached to carrier proteins. The immunogen must have epitopes that recognized by antigen presenting cells and T cell receptors and must be degradable. Hapten and the corresponding hapten-carrier conjugates are essential for the development of sensitive quantitative and qualitative immunoassays. Hapten, carrier proteins, coupling strategies, and hapten densities must be considered in designing hapten conjugates because the amount of hapten attached to the carrier affects the strength of the immune response against the newly generated antigenic determinant.